About Massive Bosons

Most Bosons do not have mass. Photons are an example of that. But in some cases they do. For example, nuclei are thought to consist of quarks, which cannot exist as singletons. But quarks are thought to be held together by gluons, which are thought to be Bosons that have mass.

When they have non-zero rest-mass, Bosons actually resemble matter, more than Bosons do with zero rest-mass. Helium-4 is the Bose particle, that gives rise to the best-known example of a superfluid. Helium-3 is the corresponding Fermi particle, that gives rise to Thermal Superconductivity, which contrasts sharply with that Helium-4 does at cryogenic temperatures.

Dirk