VDPAU Playback Issue (Problem Solved).

One of the facts which apply to Linux computing is, that NVIDIA created an API, which allows for certain video-streams to be played back in a way accelerated by the GPU, instead of all the video decoding taking place on the CPU. And, users don’t necessarily need to have an NVIDIA graphics card, in order for certain graphics drivers to offer this feature, which is called ‘VDPAU’, an acronym that stands for “Video Decode and Playback API for Unix”. Simultaneously, what some Linux users can do, is to experiment with shell-scripts that allow us to click on a specific Application Window, in order to perform screen-capture on that Window for a specified number of seconds, ad then to compress the resulting stream into MP4, AVI, or MPG -Files, once the screen-capture has finished. This latter piece of magic can be performed using elaborate ‘ffmpeg’ commands, which would need to be a part of the script in question. And in recent days, I’ve been tweaking such scripts.

But then an odd behaviour crept up. My NVIDIA graphics card supports the real-time playback of MPEG-1, MPEG-2, DIVX and H.264 -encoded streams, with GPU-acceleration. Yet, when I clicked on the resulting animations, depending on which player I chose to play those with, I’d either obtain the video stream, or I’d just obtain a grey rectangle, replacing the captured video stream. And what I do know, is that which of these results I obtain, depends on whether I’m playing back the video stream using a software decoder purely, or whether I’m choosing to have the stream played back with GPU-acceleration.

I’ve run in to the same problem before, but this time, the cause was elsewhere.

Basically, this result will often mean that the player application first asks the graphics card, whether the latter can decode the stream in question, and when the VDPAU API responds ‘Yes’, hands over the relevant processing to the GPU, but for some unknown reason, the GPU fails to decode the stream. This result can sometimes have a different meaning, but I knew I needed to focus my attention on this interpretation.

Linux users will often need to have some sort of file-format, in which they can store arbitrary video-clips, that do not need to conform to strict broadcasting and distribution standards, even when the goal is ‘just to monkey around with video clips’.

I finally found what the culprit was…

(Updated 8/15/2019, 22h15 … )

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A Basic Limitation in Stereo FM Reproduction

One of the concepts which exist in modern, high-definition sound, is that Human Sound perception can take place between 20 Hz and 20kHz, even though those endpoints are somewhat arbitrary. Some people cannot hear frequencies as high as 20kHz, especially older people, or anybody who just does not have good hearing. Healthy, young children and teenagers can typically hear that entire frequency range.

But, way back when FM radio was invented, sound engineers had flawed data about what frequencies Humans can hear. It was given to them as data to work with that Humans can only hear frequencies from 30Hz to 15kHz. And so, even though Their communications authorities had the ability to assign frequencies somewhat arbitrarily, they did so in a way that was based on such data. (:1)

For that reason, the playback of FM Stereo today, using household receivers, is still limited to an audio frequency range from 30Hz to 15kHz. Even very expensive receivers will not be able to reproduce sound, that was once part of the modulated input, outside this frequency range, although other reference points can be applied, to try to gauge how good the sound quality is.

There is one artifact of this initial standard which was sometimes apparent in early receivers. Stereo FM has a pilot frequency at 19kHz, which a receiver needs to lock an internal oscillator to, but in such a way that the internal oscillator runs at 38kHz, but such that this internal oscillator can be used to demodulate the stereo part of the sound. Because the pilot signal which is actually part of the broadcast signal is ‘only’ at 19kHz, this gives an additional reason to cut off the audible signal at ‘only’ 15Khz; the pilot is not meant to be heard. But, way back in the 1970s and earlier, Electrical Engineers did not have the type of low-pass filters available to them which they do now, that are also known as ‘brick-wall filters’, or filters that attenuate frequencies above the cutoff frequency very suddenly. Instead, equipment designed to be manufactured in the 1970s and earlier, would only use low-pass filters with gradual ‘roll-off’ curves, to attenuate the higher frequencies progressively more, above the cutoff frequency by an increasing distance, but in a way that was gentle. And in fact, even today the result seems to be, that gentler roll-off of the higher frequencies, results in better sound, when the quality is measured in other ways than just the frequency range, such as, when sound quality is measured for how good the temporal resolution, of very short pulses, of high-frequency sound is.

Generally, very sharp spectral resolution results in worse temporal resolution, and this is a negative side effect of some examples of modern sound technology.

But then sometimes, when listeners with high-end receivers in the 1970s and before, who had very good hearing, were tuned in to an FM Stereo Signal, they could actually hear some residual amount of the 19kHz pilot signal, which was never a part of the original broadcast audio. That was sometimes still audible, just because the low-pass filter that defined 15kHz as the upper cut-off frequency, was admitting the 19kHz component to a partial degree.

One technical accomplishment that has been possible since the 1970s however, in consumer electronics, was an analog ‘notch filter’, which seemed to suppress one exact frequency – or almost so – and such a notch filter could be calibrated to suppress 19kHz specifically.

Modern electronics makes possible such things as analog low-pass filters with a more-sudden frequency-cut-off, digital filters, etc. So it’s improbable today, that even listeners whose hearing would be good enough, would still be receiving this 19kHz sound-component to their headphones. In fact, the sound today is likely to seem ‘washed out’, simply because of too many transistors being fit on one chip. And when I just bought an AM/FM Radio in recent days, I did not even try the included ear-buds at first, because I have better headphones. When I did try the included ear-buds, their sound-quality was worse than that, when using my own, valued headphones. I’d say the included ear-buds did not seem to reproduce frequencies above 10kHz at all. My noise-cancelling headphones clearly continue to do so.

One claim which should be approached with extreme skepticism would be, that the sound which a listener seemed to be getting from an FM Tuner, was as good as sound that he was also obtaining from his Vinyl Turntable. AFAIK, the only way in which this would be possible would be, if he was using an extremely poor turntable to begin with.

What has happened however, is that audibility curves have been accepted – since the 1980s – that state the upper limit of Human hearing as 20kHz, and that all manner of audio equipment designed since then takes this into consideration. This would include Audio CD Players, some forms of compressed sound, etc. What some people will claim in a way that strikes me as credible however, is that the frequency-response of the HQ turntables was as good, as that of Audio CDs was. And the main reason I’ll believe that is the fact that Quadraphonic LPs were sold at some point, which had a sub-carrier for each stereo channel, that differentiated that stereo channel front-to-back. This sub-carrier was actually phase-modulated. But in order for Quadraphonic LPs to have worked at all, their actual frequency response need to go as high as  40kHz. And phase-modulation was chosen because this form of modulation is particularly immune to the various types of distortion which an LP would insert, when playing back frequencies as high as 40kHz.

About Digital FM:

(Updated 7/3/2019, 22h15 … )

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