## How 3D-plotted, implicit functions are often inferior, to ISO-Surfaces rendered for 3D Gaming.

One of the subjects which I revisited in recent weeks has been, that either Computer Algebra Systems, or other numeric toolboxes, may plot functions. And a fact that should be pointed out is, that to plot a function, either as a 2D or a 3D plot, is always numeric, even if it’s being offered as part of what a ‘CAS’ can do (a “Computer Algebra System”). And so, a subcategory of what is sometimes offered, is a 3D plot, of an implicit function, kind of like this one:

This is a plot, of complementary hyperboloids, which are the 3D counterparts to 2D hyperbola.

What some people might just wonder is, how the refined toolbox works, that plots this type of implicit function. And one way in which this can be done, is by generating an ISO-Surface, which is a derived mesh, along which a Density that has been computed from X, Y and Z parameters, crosses a threshold-value, which can just be named (H) for the sake of this posting.

And, in turn, such an ISO-Surface can be computed, by using the ‘Marching cubes algorithm‘. If it gets used, this algorithm forms a geometry shader, which accepts one Point as input topology, and which outputs a number of triangles from (0) to (4).

The question which this posting poses is, whether the mesh which is output by such an algorithm, will always include vertex-normals. And the short answer is No. Applications exist, in which normals are computed, and applications exist where normals are not computed. And so, because some users are used to high-end gaming, and used to seeing shaded surfaces, which can only really be shaded if normals have been made available to a fragment shader, those users might find themselves asking, why Mathematical plotting algorithms might exist, which never compute real normals.

(Updated 5/07/2020, 16h15… )