Installing Snap under Debian

The traditional way of installing software under Linux, specifically under Debian, has been, to use a package manager which accesses global repositories of software, and sometimes, to use a graphical front-end to the same package manager.

Thus, under Debian the package-manager command-line to install <somepackage> would be:

apt-get install <somepackage>

But, if we have “Synaptic” installed, that is a graphical front-end for the same set of commands, that I’ve come to like and trust. If we do not have Synaptic installed but wish to, then the way to install it from the command-line would be:

apt-get install synaptic

But what has happened in the Linux world is that this method of installing packages has become ‘boring’. There exists software which is not listed in the package repositories, and which Synaptic will therefore also not find in response to explicit searches, but which users will want to install, simply due to the evolution of software. One reason for which this software is not listed could be, that it would be tedious for package maintainers to compile, but another could be, the fact that some software is proprietary in nature, or at least partially so, so that to include it in the open-source repositories may in some cases be illegal.

And so, even Linux users will sometimes seek other ways of installing specific software, which they already know exists. And another way to do so has traditionally been, to compile this additional software from source code. But, sometimes the out-of-tree software we wish to install needs to come in the form of binaries. A recent development in this field has been, the emergence of a software-management system called “Snapcraft“. It’s based on the ‘Snappy’ package manager, that was developed by Canonical.

I’m going to assume for the moment that the reader already understands the existence of security implications, in installing binaries from anywhere except the package manager, together with the official repositories, even when those binaries are to be sandboxed. And I’m not going to explain those in this posting.

One reason for which Snappy exists, is the fact that some of the more-traditional installation scripts, for out-of-tree binaries, needed to make arbitrary assumptions about the organization of the Linux computer, and there are many different versions of Linux, which eventually lead to incompatibilities with the binary software. Their developers have had to make assumptions about how the customer’s computer was configured, and those assumptions will eventually be wrong for some versions of Linux. Snappy can circumvent this limitation, or so its developers claim. Whether it truly can or not remains to be seen, as Snappy is still in its infancy as I’m writing this. It could be that I just jumped in with a fashion trend, which may turn out just to have been a fad, as seen several years or decades in the future.

But this posting will continue on the assumption that the reader has a Debian Linux computer, but that he wishes to install Snappy anyway. Snappy was designed more with Ubuntu in mind, but is also available for Debian Linux.

(Updated 6/15/2019, 14h20 … )

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WordPress Update Went Smoothly Today.

I run a localized version of , that partially comes from my Linux package manager, but that has been modified by me, to allow me to install the plug-ins and extensions from .

Therefore, whenever an update to the core files is available from Debian Team – from the package manager – I am a little apprehensive, that the way this update is carried out might not be compatible with my customizations.

Most of the time, updates are good, but on occasion, they may break things.

Today an update to the core package came through the package manager, which technically puts my version at ‘‘. I am sure that there are benefits to users like me. But most importantly, it seems that this update did not break anything. Yay!

Also, I am not recording any down-time, because as far as I can tell, I was able to display a Maintenance Mode page, while the update took place, which would have told readers that the site is undergoing maintenance, for a few minutes.

Dirk

P.S. I also had to restart my ‘‘ daemon after that, the purpose of which is to introduce caching on my side – on the server – to speed up retrieval of whatever readers are interested in most often. Because this cache has therefore been flushed, some of the pages and postings may load a little slowly for the next day or two.

(Edit 02/03/2017 : ) I have begun to notice some functional changes in the behavior of WordPress, that I believe stem from this update. In short, the new version seems to use my caching daemon more consistently, than the previous build did.

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NoMachine NX

When people connect to their VPN, this could simply allow them to access shared files. But alternatively, this could also mean that they wish to create a virtual session, on the remote desktop of one of their servers. The latter exists under the terms VNC, RDP, XRDP, and several others.

On my main Linux server named ‘Phoenix’, I have the XRDP service installed, which is the Linux equivalent of RDP. But one main drawback of this method, of remotely accessing a desktop, is the fact that XRDP does not allow file-sharing, specifically in the version of this protocol that runs out-of-the-box from the package manager. I have read that certain custom-compiled versions support this, but do recall that this service is a mess to custom-compile, and to set up in such a way that it runs reliably. So I stick to the packaged version for now, and do not obtain file-sharing.

There exists a closed-source application named , which we could use to bridge this gap. But while their paid software subscriptions are very expensive (from my perspective), their Free software version has some big disadvantages.

First of all, even their Free version can be run in client or in server mode. I think that this is terrific. But in server mode – which affords access to the local machine desktop from elsewhere – there is no built-in support for SSH protocol. There is only the unencrypted NX protocol, for which their service listens.

Secondly, not every computer is strong enough to run in server mode. On the computer ‘Phoenix’ I have a fragile X-server, and this service has actually crashed my X-server. Not only that, but allowing this service to run on reboot, consistently prevents my X-server from starting. It gets its hooks into the session so early on boot, that the X-server crashes, before the user is even asked for a graphical log-in.

On the plus side, there are ways of solving both problems.

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