There exists HD Radio.

In Canada and the USA, a relatively recent practice in FM radio has been, to piggy-back a digital audio stream, onto the carriers of some existing, analog radio carriers. This is referred to as “HD Radio”. A receiver as good as the broadcasting standard should cost slightly more than $200. This additional content isn’t audible to people who have standard, analog receivers, but can be decoded by people who have the capable receivers. I like to try evaluating how well certain ‘Codecs’ work, which is an acronym for “Compressor-Decompressor”. Obviously, the digital audio has been compressed, so that it will take up a narrower range of radio-frequencies than it offers audio-frequencies. In certain cases, either a poor choice, or an outdated choice of a Codec in itself, can leave the sound-quality injured.

There was an earlier blog posting, in which I described the European Standard for ‘DAB’ this way. That uses ‘MPEG-1, Layer 2′ compression (:1). The main difference between ‘DAB’ and ‘HD Radio’ is the fact that, with ‘DAB’ or ‘DAB+’, a separate band of VHF frequencies is being used, while ‘HD Radio’ uses existing radio stations and therefore the existing band of frequencies.

The Codec used in HD Radio is proprietary, and is owned by a company named ‘iBiquity’. Some providers may reject the format, over an unwillingness to enter a contractual relationship with one commercial undertaking. But what is written is, that The Codec used here resembles AAC. One of the things which I will not do, is to provide my opinion about a lossy audio Codec, without ever having listened to it. Apple and iTunes have been working with AAC for many years, but I’ve neither owned an iPhone, nor an OS/X computer.

What I’ve done in recent days was to buy an HD Radio -capable Receiver, and this provides me with my first hands-on experience with this family of Codecs. Obviously, when trying to assess the levels of quality for FM radio, I use my headphones and not the speakers in my echoic computer-room. But, it can sometimes be more relaxing to play the radio over the speakers, despite the loss of quality that takes place, whenever I do so. (:2)

What I find is that the quality of HD Radio is better than that of analog, FM radio, but still not as good as that of lossless, 44.1kHz audio (such as, with actual Audio CDs). Yet, because we know that this Codec is lossy, that last part is to be expected.

(Updated 7/18/2019, 12h05 … )

Continue reading There exists HD Radio.

Identifying the container-file-format, separately from the Codec.

One of the facts which the public is well-aware of, is that Sound and Video are usually distributed in compressed form, through the use of a ‘Codec’, which stands for ‘Compressor / Decompressor’. What may still have some people confused though, is that there is a separate distinction in file-formats, which is the ‘Container File Format‘. The latter distinction is observed, when giving the file its filename-suffix, such as .MP3, .MPEG, .MP4, .OGG, .M4A, etc..

  • An .MP3-File will contain sound, compressed with the Codec: MPEG-2, Layer III
  • An .MPEG-File will contain video and sound, compressed with the Codecs: MPEG-2 or MPEG-1, And AC3 or MPEG, Layer III Audio (Hence, ‘MP3 Audio’ is allowed.)
  • An .MP4-File will contain video and sound, compressed with the Codecs: H.264 or MPEG-4, And AAC
  • An .OGG-File will mostly contain video and / or sound, compressed with the Codecs: Theora (video) And Vorbis (sound)

Finally, because the ‘AAC’ Sound Codec, which stands for ‘Advanced Audio Codec’, has qualities which have been found desirable outside its initial usage-scenario, for movie-making, just for Audio, there has been some possible confusion, as to how the users should name a container file, which contains only AAC-compressed audio, but no video. On my Linux-computers, I’m used to giving those files the filename-suffix ‘.M4A’ . Other people may at one time have been doing the same thing. But because the suffix was not widely recognized, Apple specifically, may have just started the trend, of just naming the container files ‘.MP4-Files’ again, even though they contain no video. This may simply have helped their customers understand the file-formats better.

The AC3 and AAC sound Codecs both offer directionality in the sound, which was useful for movies, but which will exceed the degree of directionality, that ‘MP3 Audio’ offers. And so, even though AAC offers small file-sizes, it has become popular for Music as well, because the way in which the Advanced Audio Codec compresses its sound is ‘so smart’, that listeners tend to hear very high-quality sound anyway.