Classical, impedance-quadrupling BalUn transformer.

Some readers might ask themselves, ‘What the heck is a Balun transformer?’ And the answer is that, in certain high-frequency applications, this term gets used for a Balanced-to-Unbalanced (impedance-matching) transformer, often implemented as a transmission-line transformer. One common place they did get used in years gone by was, to allow people to connect 300Ω twin-lead TV antenna cable, to the 75Ω coax inputs of more-recent TVs. Actually, what was inside those little adapters was, a toroidal ferrite core, with a piece of sheet-metal (probably aluminum) stamped around it in a clever way, so that this stamped sheet of metal also acted as the ~windings~ of the transformer.

Really, this type of transformer does the same thing that an ‘autotransformer’ does, only, at much higher frequencies. If the reader is picturing a (center-tapped) autotransformer with many windings, then he or she should also picture how many implicit, internal capacitors those have (between the windings), and how capacitors become increasingly conductive, at higher frequencies… Traditional, wound transformers start to become useless well before 100MHz has been reached.

If people look this subject up elsewhere on the Web, They might find diagrams of various types of transmission-line transformers. But, it’s easy to get confused about the way those need to be connected, so that one possible result could be, a transformer that does not work correctly. For that reason, I have just reconstructed how I remember them to have been configured in the past:




I suppose that another piece of possibly related trivia could be, that an impedance of, say, 150Ω, connected to a voltage of zero, is equivalent to 300Ω, connected to a relative voltage of (-1). Another related assumption is, that such transmission lines are indeed wound on effective ferrite cores, capable of choking their net current to zero.


Now, there’s another, related application of transmission-line transformers, which could be, that a number of transistorized output drivers might only be able to handle some higher (load-) impedance (each), but that the goal is to combine their amperage, so that a divided output-impedance also results, at minimal waste of energy. Additionally, some small mismatch in the outputs could be expected, which should be absorbed, and not result in reflected waves…

(Updated 6/02/2021, 9h15… )

Continue reading Classical, impedance-quadrupling BalUn transformer.

A problem that seems to exist in modern manufacture of metals.

There exists a problem in how modern facilities manufacture pieces of metal, which I know was real in one example that I can remember. This example was one in which “Stainless-Steel Ice Cubes” were meant to be kept in a freezer, and later put into drinks to cool them off, without ever diluting the drinks, due to melting ice for example.

When I purchased a set of stainless-steel ice cubes years ago, what I noticed was that they had an invisible film of residue on them, from the manufacturing process. I noticed this film, because touching it would irritate my skin. So what I needed to do was, to put those ice cubes through my dishwasher, after which they no longer irritated my skin from being handled, and after which they were also safe to plunk into drinks.

The fact that they had such a residue actually implies, that the people in charge of the manufacturing process do not understand what the machines are doing. After all, if these stainless-steel ice cubes are meant to be put into drinks, then it’s actually a part of the design objective that they not have any toxic residue on them, or, that the customer be warned in a way that can’t be misunderstood, that he or she needs to put them through the dishwasher before using them.

And I suspect that this problem is more prevalent with the way modern countries produce stainless-steel, resulting in low greenhouse gas emissions, than it would have been using old-fashioned methods of working steel. After all, nobody seems to recall this problem from ‘the old days’ of steel manufacture.

But the exact same problem can take place, if other types of metal are being mass-produced. For example, if a 3.5mm headphone jack is being manufactured with copper surfaces, and if the process is skipped, which would normally be standard, to gold-plate those copper surfaces, then those surfaces could also end up with an invisible residue from the manufacturing process. If that happened, the next problem would be that the 3.5mm jack fits into its socket snugly, but that a proper connection does not form, so that sound output from the headphones may initially be muffled.

The reason why sound reproduction would be affected would be the fact that such a film would effectively place a resistor with unknown resistance in series with the headphones. And the problem with that would be, that headphones and loudspeakers do not have exactly the same resistance at every frequency. The resistance of such devices is actually referred to as their “impedance”, and gets lower for the highest and lowest audible frequencies. In the mid-range, those devices probably have considerably more than 8Ω, which their impedance probably comes down to, at the outermost frequencies. What this means is that during normal operation, headphone-drivers and speakers will draw more current at the highest and lowest audible frequencies, in order to result in a frequency-response that’s reasonably flat. Therefore, if the value of series resistance is any greater than 4Ω, the voltage actually appearing at the voice-coils will collapse at these frequencies, and sound output will become noticeably abnormal.

If somebody suspects that they have a headphone jack which is doing this, the only good advice would be to use a dry cloth, and to wipe any invisible residue off it.


My reader should be aware that I can’t be 100% sure, that the second case, of the headphone jack, was a real experience of mine. This may have happened to me, when I tested a new set of earbuds for the first time. But only hours later, that set of earbuds worked flawlessly, and continued to do so ever since. Of course, if there ever was any residue on its headphone jack, that could just have rubbed off outside my being aware of it, however silly that sounds.

In general, I’d say that I need to have observed such manufacturing deficiencies at least twice, before concluding that there’s a pattern to them.



I have damaged my HBS-750 headphones slightly.

The “LG Tone Pro HBS-750″ Bluetooth Headphones differ from the newer “Infinim” Headphones, partially in that the HBS-750 still have a thin cable connecting each ear-piece to either side of the collar-piece, that cable being on the outside of the collar-piece. I read that with the Infinim series of headphones, there is an even thinner cable on each side, which retracts inside the collar-piece. A review by other testers suggested doubt, about the longevity of these ultra-thin cables, of the Infinim-series headphones. The thin cables of the HBS-750 are at least not quite as thin.

But after only owning my HBS-750 for a few days, I made a foolish mistake with them. With the ear-pieces of mine, held in place in each of the magnets on the ends of my collar-piece, I lay down on a cushion, even though I had my collar-piece around my neck. I lay down on my left side while watching television, with my actual phone placed safely on a table in front of me.

What has happened as of yesterday evening, is that the very thin cable on the left side, has developed a slight kink.

There is a hypothetical possibility of such a kink affecting sound quality. In general, headphones should operate with the sound balanced perfectly between left and right. A kink in a cable on one side can do two things:


  1. It can short-circuit the cable.
  2. It can insert some small amount of resistance, in series with the ear-piece in question.


The problem lies in the fact, that even if HQ ear-pieces are just stated to have ’32 Ohms’ of impedance, in reality their impedance curve is frequency-dependent. Ideally, this impedance might then be equal to 32 Ohms – neglecting any imaginary component – in the middle of the audible spectrum. But on the low-frequency end, as well as on the high-frequency end of the spectrum, it is likely that their impedance is much lower. This is due to the fact that a certain part of this impedance is actually due to the resistance of the wire in their coils, while most of it is due to the fact that their coils move, within the static magnetic field of their magnets.

Hence, to insert maybe ? 1/2 Ohm ? in series with one of the ear-pieces, will not affect performance much in the middle of the spectrum, but may affect performance at either end of the spectrum, where these hypothetical 1/2 Ohm will be in series with much lower impedance, due to the ear-pieces themselves.

What I have found, thankfully, is that for now, the actual kink in that cable, has not affected the sound coming out of the left ear-piece one iota. Yet, over time, these thin cables may deteriorate below the condition they are in right now. In fact, they may receive more kinks and blemishes in the near future. All of which prompts the question, of how long blue-tooth headsets are expected to last in general, with normal wear and tear.

One lesson learned: Do not lie down on one side of the head, while wearing them… The next time, I may not be so lucky. Right now, my sound still seems to be perfectly-balanced, and not in any way that favors specific frequency-ranges on one side. I also still get good, rich bass and treble on the left side…