Black Holes Again

One of the subjects which is subject to controversy these days, is to what extent a real black hole may (not) have any features.

Certain principles in Physics are thought to be stronger, than the existence of black holes. One of those is ‘conservation of momentum’, and another is ‘conservation of charge’. Conservation of momentum already implies, that a black hole is capable of having spin, because the environment could act on it over time, exerting torque. Conservation of charge is often overlooked.

If for some reason, a black hole was to end up capturing electrons in disproportion to how many protons it captures, then what should also happen is that it should build up negative charge. This idea might cause some laughter, but the result of such a scenario would nevertheless follow.

What can be even harder to foresee, is what would happen if the black hole both had considerable charge, as well as spin. According to general principles in Physics, this would imply a ‘convection current’, and then such a black hole should also have a magnetic field.

Only, until recently it was thought that both the amount of charge-imbalance in captured matter, as well as the rate of spin, should be quite small. It was only a recent estimate I heard of, that the rate of spin was in some cases 1/3 the speed of light !!

Also, it has been proposed that there is an ‘energy jet’ which black holes emit. This energy jet might form from the accretion disk, because a strong magnetic field will generally tend to do two things to a plasma: It will compress a plasma, and it will generally tend to force its path of motion, to follow the lines of force, of the magnetic field. The latter is true, because the individual ionized particle do not travel in straight lines, instead traveling in helical paths, that are curved by an applied magnetic field. The helical paths which charged particles follow, will tend to rotate around the axis of the field, but will extend along its axis.

Well nobody has yet answered, whether the ‘energy jet’ from a black hole, initially consists mostly of protons, or of electrons and protons in a perfectly balanced way… If it was to consist mostly of the more massive protons, then the black hole and its surrounding phenomena should also become increasingly negatively charged… I do not actually visualize, the energy jet from a black hole consisting greatly of electrons…

Dirk

 

Fireball Emerges from Black Hole

One subject which has vexed Science, is the question of whether Information gets destroyed, when matter “enters” a black hole – or under any other circumstances.

A recent event which has received much attention, was that a fireball seemed to emerge from a black hole:

Article

First of all, a typical black hole only has a diameter of a few meters. This is one reason for which Astronomers have never been able actually to see one. Black holes are observed indirectly, from the phenomena which are predicted to occur around them. Ubiquitous images like the ones above, are artistic renderings, aided today by CGI, that are a direct product mainly of the assumptions Scientists make about black holes.

But one phenomenon known to occur near a black hole is an “Accretion Disk”, a swirling mass of hot gas, becoming faster and hotter is it gets closer to the actual black hole. This gas eventually becomes so hot that it becomes ionized, which makes it a plasma. Eventually it is thought, that tidal forces can tear the atoms apart. But there are forces stronger than the tidal forces near the event horizon of the black hole. The problem is that those forces have largely been described as ‘friction within the Accretion Disk’.

As it happens, Astronomers have recently put a revised estimate on how fast a supermassive black hole can actually be spinning, and they came up with the result, that some black holes have event horizons spinning at 1/3 the speed of light !!  And one conclusion which this implies, is that the Accretion Disk will also become distorted near the event horizon. For one thing, there is likely to be an extremely powerful magnetic field near the black hole…

If our telescopes observe a fireball emerge from a place where a black hole is thought to reign, it is most likely a product of the Accretion Disk. When plasma moves through a magnetic field, the field affects its movement.

It was never actually implied that 100% of the matter of the Accretion Disk ever enters the black hole.

But this type of observation is part of what makes the question hard to answer, whether Information is actually destroyed. Even if we assume that the event horizon of the black hole is immutable, the Accretion Disk around it is not. The Accretion Disk contains information, and if this matter hits an immutable wall, Information within it is still not necessarily destroyed.

The question is similar to the question, of where the Energy and Information go, when a test car is made to collide with a solid wall. The Energy and Information go everywhere – except through that wall.

And, if a person was actually to witness the kind of black hole which is ‘big and quiet’ – which means that it has no more Accretion Disk – and if that person was visualized as getting sucked in to that sort of black hole, then the mass of one Human would be enough to form a brief Accretion Disk all by itself. That one Human would get wrapped around the black hole innumerable times, before some if its matter was actually captured.

And so the question which is less than clear, in connection with ‘Where does the information go when somebody gets pulled in,’ would be ‘Where does the information go immediately before somebody gets pulled in?’

Of course in Astronomy, that question gets phrased differently, as ‘Where does the information go when something gets pulled in?’ Also, in Astronomy the question doesn’t get asked, ‘What exactly happens immediately before a person dies?’ That question is more up to Forensics to answer.

Dirk

(Edit : ) Also, If the black hole is spinning, Then its event horizon is already no longer spherical. If waves in its event horizon are generally dissipated by gravity waves propagating at the speed of light, and if the black hole itself is spinning at 1/3 the speed of light, it emerges that its event horizon is also no longer immutable.

Instead, the black hole would start to resemble a droplet of fluid, which is very asymmetrical, and turbulent at least at its surface.