Black Holes Again

One of the subjects which is subject to controversy these days, is to what extent a real black hole may (not) have any features.

Certain principles in Physics are thought to be stronger, than the existence of black holes. One of those is ‘conservation of momentum’, and another is ‘conservation of charge’. Conservation of momentum already implies, that a black hole is capable of having spin, because the environment could act on it over time, exerting torque. Conservation of charge is often overlooked.

If for some reason, a black hole was to end up capturing electrons in disproportion to how many protons it captures, then what should also happen is that it should build up negative charge. This idea might cause some laughter, but the result of such a scenario would nevertheless follow.

What can be even harder to foresee, is what would happen if the black hole both had considerable charge, as well as spin. According to general principles in Physics, this would imply a ‘convection current’, and then such a black hole should also have a magnetic field.

Only, until recently it was thought that both the amount of charge-imbalance in captured matter, as well as the rate of spin, should be quite small. It was only a recent estimate I heard of, that the rate of spin was in some cases 1/3 the speed of light !!

Also, it has been proposed that there is an ‘energy jet’ which black holes emit. This energy jet might form from the accretion disk, because a strong magnetic field will generally tend to do two things to a plasma: It will compress a plasma, and it will generally tend to force its path of motion, to follow the lines of force, of the magnetic field. The latter is true, because the individual ionized particle do not travel in straight lines, instead traveling in helical paths, that are curved by an applied magnetic field. The helical paths which charged particles follow, will tend to rotate around the axis of the field, but will extend along its axis.

Well nobody has yet answered, whether the ‘energy jet’ from a black hole, initially consists mostly of protons, or of electrons and protons in a perfectly balanced way… If it was to consist mostly of the more massive protons, then the black hole and its surrounding phenomena should also become increasingly negatively charged… I do not actually visualize, the energy jet from a black hole consisting greatly of electrons…

Dirk

 

Fireball Emerges from Black Hole

One subject which has vexed Science, is the question of whether Information gets destroyed, when matter “enters” a black hole – or under any other circumstances.

A recent event which has received much attention, was that a fireball seemed to emerge from a black hole:

Article

First of all, a typical black hole only has a diameter of a few meters. This is one reason for which Astronomers have never been able actually to see one. Black holes are observed indirectly, from the phenomena which are predicted to occur around them. Ubiquitous images like the ones above, are artistic renderings, aided today by CGI, that are a direct product mainly of the assumptions Scientists make about black holes.

But one phenomenon known to occur near a black hole is an “Accretion Disk”, a swirling mass of hot gas, becoming faster and hotter is it gets closer to the actual black hole. This gas eventually becomes so hot that it becomes ionized, which makes it a plasma. Eventually it is thought, that tidal forces can tear the atoms apart. But there are forces stronger than the tidal forces near the event horizon of the black hole. The problem is that those forces have largely been described as ‘friction within the Accretion Disk’.

As it happens, Astronomers have recently put a revised estimate on how fast a supermassive black hole can actually be spinning, and they came up with the result, that some black holes have event horizons spinning at 1/3 the speed of light !!¬† And one conclusion which this implies, is that the Accretion Disk will also become distorted near the event horizon. For one thing, there is likely to be an extremely powerful magnetic field near the black hole…

If our telescopes observe a fireball emerge from a place where a black hole is thought to reign, it is most likely a product of the Accretion Disk. When plasma moves through a magnetic field, the field affects its movement.

It was never actually implied that 100% of the matter of the Accretion Disk ever enters the black hole.

But this type of observation is part of what makes the question hard to answer, whether Information is actually destroyed. Even if we assume that the event horizon of the black hole is immutable, the Accretion Disk around it is not. The Accretion Disk contains information, and if this matter hits an immutable wall, Information within it is still not necessarily destroyed.

The question is similar to the question, of where the Energy and Information go, when a test car is made to collide with a solid wall. The Energy and Information go everywhere – except through that wall.

And, if a person was actually to witness the kind of black hole which is ‘big and quiet’ – which means that it has no more Accretion Disk – and if that person was visualized as getting sucked in to that sort of black hole, then the mass of one Human would be enough to form a brief Accretion Disk all by itself. That one Human would get wrapped around the black hole innumerable times, before some if its matter was actually captured.

And so the question which is less than clear, in connection with ‘Where does the information go when somebody gets pulled in,’ would be ‘Where does the information go immediately before somebody gets pulled in?’

Of course in Astronomy, that question gets phrased differently, as ‘Where does the information go when something gets pulled in?’ Also, in Astronomy the question doesn’t get asked, ‘What exactly happens immediately before a person dies?’ That question is more up to Forensics to answer.

Dirk

(Edit : ) Also, If the black hole is spinning, Then its event horizon is already no longer spherical. If waves in its event horizon are generally dissipated by gravity waves propagating at the speed of light, and if the black hole itself is spinning at 1/3 the speed of light, it emerges that its event horizon is also no longer immutable.

Instead, the black hole would start to resemble a droplet of fluid, which is very asymmetrical, and turbulent at least at its surface.

 

Two Black Holes Coalescing is an extremely rare event.

If opponents to the theory of gravity waves are sensing any hint of conspiracy, they may ask, ‘Which gravity-wave hunters have reported this measurement?’ There was a number of scientific groups attempting to find gravity waves in inherently weak data that resembled noise in their sensors. But as I take it, because two black holes have in fact merged (more than a billion light-years away), it showed up on all the sensors. And this is why the Scientific Community took the unusually bold step, simply to pronounce that these waves are real.

To understand what has happened, it’s necessary to understand how rare an event it is, for two black holes actually to do this.

One can have a binary star system, including one in which both stars are heavy enough, eventually to go supernova, and to produce black holes. But usually, one of the two will do so before the other. What usually happens next, is that the first to do so, will start to draw plasma away from the other, when the second one gets bloated in size. This alters the evolution of the second one.

But none of this really changes the distance between the two stars. And because the mass of even two black holes will not be greater than that of the stars which gave birth to them, the strength of the gravity waves, which seem to form simply from the fact that they’re orbiting each other, will only be as strong say, as the gravity waves that are already forming between Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri today. Usually. We are not currently watching these two stars orbit any closer to each other than before, due to energy lost in gravity waves.

In order for the event to happen that just did, two black holes would need to have been orbiting for millions of years, already only kilometers apart. It’s not impossible. It’s just very rare. This orbit would have started to lose energy to gravity waves, which for another million years went undetected by us. And then, once the black holes – which each only have¬† diameter of about a meter – are within ten meters of each other, one gets a sudden event.

This event was just unfortunate for the opponents to the theory of gravity waves, to a cosmic degree. As was the fact that Humanity had its ears switched on to it, at the right time to detect it.

Now, I would assume that the one black hole which formed, is spherical again. Maybe there is something wrong with my whole assumption. But if it is, then Why would it continue to store information as permanent waves, and as if it was a hologram?

(Edit 2/12/2016 : ) I think that there’s a key component to this problem which I should mention. It’s Humanly possible to measure the gravitation produced by a cement truck. And if the truck is moving erratically, its gravitation will also change over time. And such measurements, being from much closer to our sensors than the Astronomical ones, tended to form background noise in attempts to measure gravity waves, which needed to be filtered out computationally.

But gravity waves are only said to exist, if the changes in gravity are propagated at the speed of light. For the same reason, gravity won’t carry away energy, unless the power is also limited by the frequency of these waves, which will therefore have a wavelength.

And If You Must Know, the only reason for which two black holes would be losing energy to this, is the fact that each is experiencing the gravity of the other, in a fashion shifted slightly by the speed of light – acting between them.

Dirk

 

One Way in which Gravity Waves are Significant

The existence of gravity waves has just been documented. And a question I’ve already been asked, is ‘How is this discovery significant?’

Throughout the 1970s, Scientists had a theory about black holes, which was based on Einstein. This theory stated ‘A Black Hole Has No hair’. It stated, that a black hole needed to be featureless. And the reason that was given was the fact, that waves could exist momentarily in its shape, but that if they do, their potential energy is carried away by gravity waves very rapidly, thus also ending the deformities.

Since the 1970s, Quantum Mechanics gurus felt that they were able to repudiate this theory, simply by saying ‘What gravity waves? Nobody has ever been able to prove that gravity waves exist!’

One question which QM specialists have also been sidestepping since the 1970s, was ‘Through what force is information stored on the event horizon of a black hole?’ This question calls upon the fact that while a physical phenomenon, such as a black hole, can in fact store information in some cases, this information is being represented by something material. E.g., Information can be stored on a Hard Drive, through Magnetic Fields.

Well information would also need to be stored at the event horizon, in the form of something else, other than simply information. Such, as in the form of waves in its shape. But QM specialists who have claimed that black holes store information, have never answered, ‘In what physical form?’

And you see, there is a possible form. Black holes are currently understood to radiate Hawking Radiation, which resembles dark-body radiation. Well ‘thermodynamic radiation’ is similar to the behavior of a pseudo-random number generator on a computer. Even a computer cannot generate pseudo-random numbers, without storing a small amount of information temporarily in a register.

But the real question which remains unanswered about black holes, is what mechanism if any they might have, to store more information than they would need to store, merely to generate Hawking Radiation, which would be an amount of information merely proportional to the surface area, of the black hole.

Since at its event horizon, the gravity of a black hole is thought to be infinite, it should also overpower whatever else might be happening there. But curiously so, except for Hawking Radiation.

Dirk